|The Ultimate Fighting Championship
) is a U.S.-based mixed martial arts (MMA) organization. Dana White serves as the president of the UFC, which is owned by Zuffa, LLC under casino-moguls Frank and Lorenzo Fertitta.   
Inspired by Brazilian vale tudo, the UFC began in Denver, Colorado in 1993 as a single-event tournament designed to find the world's best fighters, regardless of their fighting style (whether boxing, kickboxing, wrestling, karate, or Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, among other disciplines). Although there were a limited number of rules, promoters marketed fighting in the UFC as no holds barred
and contests were often violent and brutal, leading critics like Senator John McCain to dub the sport "human cockfighting."
Political pressures eventually led the UFC into the underground as pay-per-view providers nixed UFC programming, nearly extinguishing its public visibility.
As political pressure mounted, the UFC reformed itself, slowly embracing stricter rules, becoming sanctioned by State Athletic Commissions, and marketing itself as a legitimate sporting event. Dropping the no holds barred
label and carrying the banner of mixed martial arts
, the UFC has emerged from its political isolation to become more socially acceptable, regaining its position in pay-per-view television.
With a cable television deal and expansion into Canada, Europe and new markets within the United States, the UFC s of 2009 viewers can access UFC programming on Spike in the United States and Canada, on ESPN in the United Kingdom as well as in 33 other countries worldwide.
The concept for a tournament
purporting to discover the world's best fighting style came from Art Davie
, an advertising executive based in southern California. 
Davie met Rorion Gracie
in 1991 while researching martial arts for a marketing client. Gracie operated a Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu
school in Torrance, California
and the Gracie family
had a long history of vale-tudo
matches — a precursor of mixed martial arts — in Brazil. Davie became Gracie's student.
In 1992, inspired by the Gracies in Action
video-series produced by the Gracies and featuring Gracie jiu-jitsu defeating various martial arts masters, Davie proposed to Rorion Gracie and John Milius
an eight-man, single-elimination tournament with a title of War of the Worlds
. The tournament would feature martial artists from different disciplines facing each other in no holds barred combat to see which martial art was truly the best which replicated the excitement of the matches Davie saw on those videos. 
Milius, a noted film director and screenwriter, as well as a Gracie student, agreed to be the event's creative director. Davie drafted the business plan and twenty-eight investors contributed the initial capital to start WOW Promotions
with the intent to develop the tournament into a television franchise. 
In 1993 WOW Promotions sought a television
partner and approached pay-per-view
producers TVKO (HBO
), SET (Showtime
) and Semaphore Entertainment Group (SEG). Both TVKO and SET declined, but SEG – a pioneer in pay-per-view television which had produced such off-beat events as a mixed-gender tennis match between Jimmy Connors
and Martina Navratilova
– became WOW's partner in May 1993. 
SEG contacted video and film art director Jason Cusson to design the trademarked "Octagon", a signature piece for the event. Cusson remained the Production Designer through UFC 27
SEG devised the name for the show as The Ultimate Fighting Championship
The two companies produced the first event at McNichols Sports Arena
in Denver, Colorado
on November 12
. Davie functioned as the show's booker and matchmaker. 
The television broadcast featured two kickboxers
, Patrick Smith and Kevin Rosier; a savate
fighter, Gerard Gordeau
; a karate
expert, Zane Frazier; a shootfighter
, Ken Shamrock
; a sumo wrestler, Teila Tuli
; a professional boxer
, Art Jimmerson
; and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu black belt Royce Gracie
—Rorion's younger brother who was hand-picked by Rorion himself to represent his family. The show was an instant success, drawing 86,592 television subscribers on pay-per-view to witness Royce Gracie take the first UFC crown. In April 1995, following UFC 5
in Charlotte, North Carolina
, Davie and Gracie sold their interest in the franchise to SEG and disbanded WOW Promotions. Davie continued with SEG as the show's booker and matchmaker, as well as the commissioner of Ultimate Fighting, until December 1997.
The show proposed to find an answer for sports fans to the question: "Can a wrestler beat a boxer?" 
As with most martial arts at the time, fighters were typically skilled in just one discipline (e.g., boxing, judo
, or jujutsu
) and had little experience against opponents with different skills. 
With weight classes ranging from infant to morbidly obese, fighters often faced significantly larger or taller opponents. For example, Keith "The Giant Killer" Hackney
faced Emmanuel Yarborough
at UFC 3
with a height and weight disadvantage. 
Many martial artists believed that technique could overcome these size disadvantages, and that a skilled fighter could use an opponent's size and strength against him; with the Royce Gracie
winning three of the first four UFC events, the UFC quickly proved that size does not always determine outcome.
Emergence of more rules
Although UFC used the "There are no rules!" tagline in the early 1990s, this was not strictly true; the UFC operated with limited rules. There was no biting, no eye gouging, and the system frowned on (but allowed) techniques such as hair pulling, headbutt
ing, groin strikes
. In fact, in a UFC 4
qualifying match, competitors Jason Fairn and Guy Mezger
agreed not to pull hair as they both wore pony tails tied back for the match. Additionally, that same event saw a matchup between Keith Hackney and Joe Son in which Hackney unleashed a series of groin shots against Joe Son while on the ground. The UFC was similarly characterized, especially in the early days, as an extremely violent sport, as evidenced by a disclaimer in the beginning of the UFC 5
broadcast which warned audiences of the violent nature of the event. A brief appearance of a match in the 1995 film Virtuosity
likely did little to change this perception.
Controversy and reform
The UFC became a hit on pay-per-view and home video almost immediately due to its originality, realism, and wide press coverage, although not all of it favorable. The nature of the burgeoning sport quickly drew the attention of the authorities and UFC events were banned in a number of American states. Senator John McCain
), was sent a tape of the first UFC events and immediately found it abhorrent. McCain himself led a campaign to ban Ultimate Fighting, calling it "human cockfighting", and sending letters to the governors of all fifty U.S. states
asking them to ban the event.
As a result, the UFC was dropped from the major cable pay-per-view distributor Viewer's Choice, and individual cable carriers such as TCI Cable
. Thirty-six states enacted laws that banned "no-holds-barred" fighting, including New York
, which enacted the ban on the eve of UFC 12
, forcing a relocation of the event to Dothan, Alabama
The UFC continued to air on DirecTV
PPV, though its audience was minuscule compared to the larger cable pay-per-view platforms of the era.
In response to the criticism, the UFC increased its cooperation with state athletic commissions
and redesigned its rules to remove the less palatable elements of fights while retaining the core elements of striking
. UFC 12
saw the introduction of weight-classes. From UFC 14
gloves became mandatory and kicks to a downed opponent, hair pulling, fish hooking, headbutting, and groin strikes were banned. UFC 15
saw more limitations on permissible striking areas: strikes to the back of the neck and head, and small joint manipulations were banned. With five-minute rounds introduced at UFC 21
, the UFC gradually re-branded itself as a sport rather than a spectacle. 
As the UFC continued to work with state athletic commissions, events took place in smaller U.S. markets, including Iowa
. SEG could not secure home video releases for UFC 23
through UFC 29
in a period known by some fans as the "dark days" of the UFC. With other mixed martial arts promotions working towards U.S. sanctioning, the International Fighting Championships
secured the first U.S. sanctioned mixed martial arts event, which occurred in New Jersey
on September 30, 2000. Just two months later, the UFC held its first sanctioned event, UFC 28
, under the New Jersey State Athletic Control Board
's "Unified Rules". 
McCain's opinions have now been revised and he is quoted as saying: "The sport has grown up. The rules have been adopted to give its athletes better protections and to ensure fairer competition." 
After the long battle to secure sanctioning, SEG stood on the brink of bankruptcy when they were approached by Station Casinos
executives Frank and Lorenzo Fertitta, and boxing promoter Dana White
in 2001, with an offer to purchase the UFC. A month later, in January 2001, the Fertittas bought the UFC for $2 million and created Zuffa, LLC
as the parent entity controlling the UFC. 
With ties to the Nevada State Athletic Commission
(Lorenzo Fertitta was a former member of the NSAC), Zuffa secured sanctioning in Nevada in 2001. 
Shortly thereafter, at UFC 33
, the UFC returned to pay-per-view cable television.
The UFC slowly, but steadily, rose in popularity after the Zuffa purchase, due partly to effective advertising, corporate sponsorship, the return to cable pay-per-view, and subsequent home video and DVD
releases. With larger live gates at casino venues like the Trump Taj Mahal
and the MGM Grand Garden Arena
, and pay-per-view buys beginning to return to levels enjoyed by the UFC prior to the political backlash in 1997, the UFC secured its first television deal with Fox Sports Net
, with The Best Damn Sports Show Period
airing the first mixed martial arts match on American cable television in June 2002 with UFC 37.5
. Later, FSN would air highlight shows from the UFC, showcasing one hour blocks of the UFC's greatest bouts. At UFC 40
, pay-per-view buys hit 150,000 for a card
headlined by a grudge match between Tito Ortiz
and Ken Shamrock
. Shamrock was an original headliner from the UFC's early days who had since defected to professional wrestling
in the WWF
. It was the first time the UFC hit such a high mark since being forced "underground" in 1997. 
Despite the success, the UFC was still experiencing financial deficits, and by 2004
, Zuffa had $34 million of losses since the purchase. 
The rise of the number of spectators, fans and athletes in the Ultimate Fighting Championship can be linked to the power of the media. 
Commentators often compare the international growth of the sport to the international growth of similar sports, such as boxing. An example of this emergence is the increasing number of viewers the sport is getting with its television coverage. In "2006, an MMA company broke the record of the pay per view industry's all time single year revenue, surpassing WWE and Boxing". 
After being featured in a reality television
series, American Casino
, and seeing how well the series worked as a promotion vehicle, the Fertitta brothers developed the idea of the UFC having its own reality series. Their idea, The Ultimate Fighter
– a reality television show not unlike Survivor
, but featuring up-and-coming MMA fighters in competition, with fighters eliminated from competition via exhibition mixed martial arts matches – was pitched to several networks, each one rejecting the idea outright. Not until they approached Spike TV
, with an offer to pay the $10 million production costs themselves, did they find an outlet.
In January 2005, Spike TV
launched the series in the timeslot following WWE Raw
, and the show became an instant success. A second season of The Ultimate Fighter
launched in August 2005, and two more seasons appeared in 2006. Spike TV and the UFC continue to create and air new seasons. 
broadcasting as color commentator
at UFC Fight Night 7
Following the success of The Ultimate Fighter
, Spike TV also picked up UFC Unleashed
, an hour-long weekly show featuring select fights from previous events. Spike TV also signed on to broadcast live UFC Fight Night
, a series of fight events debuting in August 2005; Countdown specials to promote upcoming UFC pay-per-view cards, and several other series and specials featuring and promoting the UFC and its fighters.
With increased visibility, the UFC's pay-per-view buy numbers exploded. UFC 52
, the first event after the first season of The Ultimate Fighter, drew a pay-per-view audience of 280,000, nearly double its previous benchmark of 150,000 set at UFC 40
. Following the second season of The Ultimate Fighter, the UFC's much-hyped rubber match
between Randy Couture
and Chuck Liddell
drew an estimated 410,000 pay-per-view buys at UFC 57
. For the rest of 2006, pay-per-view buy rates continued to skyrocket with 620,000 buys for UFC 60
, 775,000 buys for UFC 61
which featured the second fight between Ken Shamrock
and Tito Ortiz
, the coaches of The Ultimate Fighter 3
. UFC 66
, featuring Tito Ortiz
facing Chuck Liddell in their highly anticipated rematch, garnered 1,050,000 buy rates. UFC 100
garnered 1.72 million buy rates, the current PPV buy-rate record for the UFC and MMA in general. The UFC broke the pay-per-view industry's all-time records for a single year of business, generating over $222,766,000 in revenue during 2006, surpassing WWE
Online sportsbooks have noted the increasing significance of the UFC. BodogLife.com, an online gambling site, stated in July 2007 that in 2007 UFC would surpass boxing for the first time in terms of betting revenues. 
In March 2006, the UFC announced that it had hired Marc Ratner
, former Executive Director of the Nevada Athletic Commission
, as Vice President of Regulatory Affairs. Ratner, once an ally of Senator McCain's
campaign against mixed martial arts, was credited as one person responsible for the emergence of sanctioned mixed martial arts in the United States
. Ratner is expected to help raise the UFC's media profile and help legalize mixed martial arts in jurisdictions inside and outside the United States that do not sanction mixed martial arts bouts.
The UFC continued its rapid rise: from near obscurity in 2005, to gracing the covers of Sports Illustrated
and ESPN The Magazine
in May 2007. 
UFC programming is now shown in 36 countries worldwide, 
and the UFC plans to continue expanding internationally, running shows regularly in Canada and the United Kingdom, with an office established in the UK aimed to expand the European UFC audience. 
On March 27 2007
The UFC and Pride Fighting Championships
announced an agreement in which the majority owners of the UFC, Frank and Lorenzo Fertitta, would purchase the Pride brand.  
Initial intentions were for both organizations to be separately run but aligned together and there were plans to co-promote supercards featuring champions and top contenders from both organizations. Comments by Dana White indicated that the Pride brand would likely fold and many former Pride fighters were already being realigned under the UFC brand. 
On October 4 2007
, Pride Worldwide closed its Japanese office, laying off 20 people who were working there since the closing of DSE. 
In December 2006, WEC
became a sister organization to UFC, after being bought by Zuffa. The WEC hosts the lighter weight classes in MMA, whereas the UFC tends to focus on the heavier weight classes. 
, the UFC continue to expand to the mainstream by announcing two major exclusive sponsorship deals with Harley-Davidson 
and Anheuser-Busch InBev
making the brewer's Bud Light
the official and exclusive beer sponsor of the UFC.
On June 18, 2008, Lorenzo Fertitta announced his resignation from Station Casinos in order to devote his energies to the international business development of Zuffa, particularly the UFC.
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The current rules for the Ultimate Fighting Championship were originally established by the New Jersey Athletic Control Board
The "Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts
" that New Jersey established has been adopted in other states that regulate mixed martial arts, including Nevada, Louisiana, and California. These rules are also used by many other promotions within the United States, becoming mandatory for those states that have adopted the rules, and so have become the standard de facto
set of rules for professional mixed martial arts across the country.
Every round in UFC competition is five minutes in duration. Title matches have five such rounds, and non-title matches have three. There is a one-minute rest period between rounds.
The UFC currently uses five weight classes:
- Light Heavyweight:
- Heavyweight: .
In addition, there are four other weight classes specified in the Unified Rules which the UFC does not currently utilize:
- Flyweight: under
- Super Heavyweight: above .
The Flyweight, Bantamweight, and Featherweight classes are used in another promotion owned by Zuffa, LLC
, World Extreme Cagefighting
The UFC stages bouts in an octagonal caged enclosure; "The Octagon." Originally, SEG trademarked The Octagon and prevented other mixed martial arts promotions from using the same type of cage, but in 2001, Zuffa gave its permission for other promotions to use octagonal cages (while reserving use of the name "Octagon"), reasoning that the young sport needed uniformity to continue to win official sanctioning. 
The cage is an eight-sided structure with walls of metal chain-link fence coated with black vinyl and a diameter of , allowing of space from point to point. The fence is 5'6" to 5'8" high. The cage sits atop a platform, raising it from the ground. It has foam padding around the top of the fence and between each of the eight sections. It also has two entry-exit gates opposite each other. 
The mat, painted with sponsorship logos and art, is replaced for each event.
All competitors must fight in approved shorts, without shoes. Shirts, gis
or long pants (including gi pants) are not allowed. Fighters must use approved light-weight open-fingered gloves, that include at least 1" of padding around the knuckles, (110 to 170 g / 4 to 6 ounces) that allow fingers to grab. These gloves enable fighters to punch with less risk of an injured or broken hand, while retaining the ability to grab and grapple.
Originally the attire for UFC was very open if controlled at all. Many fighters still chose to wear tight-fitting shorts or boxing-type trunks, while others wore long pants or singlets. Multi-time tournament champion Royce Gracie
wore a jiujitsu gi in all his early appearances in UFC.
Matches usually end via:
: a fighter clearly taps on the mat or his opponent or verbally submits.
: a fighter falls from a legal blow and is either unconscious or unable to immediately continue.
- Technical Knockout
(TKO): If a fighter cannot continue, the fight is ended as a technical knockout. Technical knockouts can be classified into three categories:
- *referee stoppage: (the referee determines a fighter cannot "intelligently defend" himself; if warnings to the fighter to improve his position or defense go unanswered—generally, two warnings are given, about 5 seconds apart)
- *doctor stoppage (a ringside doctor due to injury or impending injury, as when blood flows into the eyes and blinds a fighter)
- *corner stoppage (a fighter's own cornerman signals defeat for their own fighter)
- Judges' Decision
: Depending on scoring, a match may end as:
- *unanimous decision (all three judges score a win for fighter A)
- *majority decision (two judges score a win for fighter A, one judge scores a draw)
- *split decision (two judges score a win for fighter A, one judge scores a win for fighter B)
- *unanimous draw (all three judges score a draw)
- *majority draw (two judges score a draw, one judge scoring a win)
- *split draw (one judge scores a win for fighter A, one judge scores a win for fighter B, and one judge scores a draw)
Note: In the event of a draw, it is not necessary that the fighters' total points
be equal (see, e.g., UFC 41
Penn vs. Uno, or UFC 43
Freeman vs. White). However, in a unanimous or split draw, each fighter does score an equal number of win judgments
from the three judges (0 or 1, respectively).
A fight can also end in a technical decision
, technical draw
, or no contest
. The latter two outcomes have no winners.
The ten-point must system
is in effect for all UFC fights; three judges score each round and the winner of each receives ten points, the loser nine points or fewer. If the round is even, both fighters receive ten points. In New Jersey, the fewest points a fighter can receive is 7, and in other states by custom no fighter receives fewer than 8.
The Nevada State Athletic Commission currently lists the following as fouls: 
with the head.
of any kind.
s of any kind.
#Putting a finger into any orifice or into any cut or laceration on an opponent. (see Gouging
#Small joint manipulation
#Striking to the spine or the back of the head. (see Rabbit punch
#Striking downward using the point of the elbow. (see Elbow (strike)
strikes of any kind, including, without limitation, grabbing the trachea
#Clawing, pinching or twisting the flesh.
#Grabbing the clavicle
the head of a grounded opponent.
the head of a grounded opponent.
a grounded opponent.
ing to the kidney with the heel.
#Spiking an opponent to the canvas on his head or neck. (see piledriver
an opponent out of the ring or fenced area.
#Holding the shorts or gloves of an opponent.
#Spitting at an opponent.
#Engaging in unsportsmanlike conduct that causes an injury to an opponent.
#Holding the ropes or the fence.
#Using abusive language in the ring or fenced area.
#Attacking an opponent on or during the break.
#Attacking an opponent who is under the care of the referee.
#Attacking an opponent after the bell (horn) has sounded the end of a round.
#Flagrantly disregarding the instructions of the referee.
#Timidity, including, without limitation, avoiding contact with an opponent, intentionally or consistently dropping the mouthpiece or faking an injury.
#Interference by the corner.
#Throwing in the towel during competition.
When a foul is charged, the referee in their discretion may deduct one or more points as a penalty. If a foul incapacitates a fighter, then the match may end in a disqualification if the foul was intentional, or a no contest if unintentional. If a foul causes a fighter to be unable to continue later in the bout, it ends with a technical decision win to the injured fighter if the injured fighter is ahead on points, otherwise it is a technical draw. 
- After a verbal warning the referee can stop the fighters and stand them up if they reach a stalemate on the ground (where neither are in a dominant position or working towards one). This rule is codified in Nevada as the stand-up rule
- If the referee pauses the match, it is resumed with the fighters in their prior positions.
- Grabbing the cage brings a verbal warning, followed by an attempt by the referee to release the grab by pulling on the grabbing hand. If that attempt fails or if the fighter continues to hold the cage, the referee may charge a foul.
- Early UFC events disregarded verbal sparring / "trash-talking" during matches. Under unified rules, antics are permitted before events to add to excitement and allow fighters to express themselves, but abusive language during combat is prohibited.
Evolution of the UFC rules
2009 the schedule envisages the release of these figures in November 2009. Series include the "UFC Deluxe Series Zero", which includes Royce Gracie, Brock Lesnar, Frank Mir, Rashad Evans
, Keith Jardine
, Houston Alexander
, Kendall Grove
and Miguel Torres
, and the "UFC Deluxe Series 1" which includes Chuck Liddell
, Anderson Silva, Forrest Griffin
, Michael Bisping
, Evan Tanner
, Kevin Randleman
, Cheick Kongo
and Mike Swick
They will also release an "Official Scale Octagon Playset". 
Figures are also available from the company Round 5. 
Series one of their figures includes
Quinton "Rampage" Jackson
, Matt Hughes
, Tito Ortiz
, and Randy Couture
. Series two (released on November 10
) includes Wanderlei Silva
, Sean Sherk
, Rich Franklin
, and Anderson Silva. An exclusive version of the Randy Couture figure was released at the 2008 San Diego Comic Convention in which he has different colored shorts that are adorned with the Comic Con's Logo.
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- List of UFC champions
- List of UFC events
- Ultimate Cash Machine
- What The F**k Is Dana White Fighting For?
- Former UFC champ helps promote Pittsburgh event
- Friend, Tad, "Getting Medieval", ''New York Magazine'', February 19, 1993, page 43.
- Gentry III, Clyde, ''No Holds Barred: Ultimate Fighting and the Martial Arts Revolution'', Milo Books, 2003, paperback edition, ISBN 0-903854-90-X, page 38-39
- Gentry III, Clyde, ''No Holds Barred: Evolution'', Archon Publishing, 2001, 1st ed., ISBN 0-9711479-0-6, pages 24–29.
Gentry III, Clyde, ''No Holds Barred: Evolution'', Archon Publishing, 2001, 1st ed., ISBN 0-9711479-0-6, page 41
- Gentry III, Clyde, ''No Holds Barred: Evolution'', Archon Publishing, 2001, 1st Edition, ISBN 0-9711479-0-6, page 29
- Newport, John Paul, "Blood Sport", ''Details'', March 1995, pages 70–72.
- Willoughby, David P., ''The Super Athletes'', A.S. Barnes & Co., Inc., 1970, ISBN 0-498-06651-7, page 380.
- Gentry, Clyde, ''No Holds Barred: Ultimate Fighting and the Martial Arts Revolution'', (Milo Books: Preston, 2005), p.73
- Fight Clubbed
Fight card for UFC 3, Sherdog.com. Fighter profile for Keith Hackney, Sherdog.com. Fighter profile for Emmanuel Yarborough, Sherdog.com. Last retrieved December 5, 2006
- Gentry III, Clyde, ''No Holds Barred: Ultimate Fighting and the Martial Arts Revolution'', Milo Books, 2003, Paperback Edition, ISBN 0-903854-90-X, pages 106, 123
- UFC History
- Trembow, Ivan. New Jersey Commission Corrects Mainstream UFC Stories. Ivan's Blog.
- UFC night proves a hit
- Mixed Martial Arts: A New Kind Of Fight
- New Jersey Commission Corrects Mainstream UFC Stories, Ivan's Blog, formerly posted on MMAWeekly.com. Last retrieved December 5 2006
- UFC's Pay-Per-View Buys Explode in 2006, Ivan's Blog, originally posted on MMAWeekly.com. Last retrieved November 11 2006
- The ultimate fighting machines, CNNMoney.com. November 8, 2006. Last retrieved November 11, 2006
- (4) Arnold, Zack. "How boxing should respond to the rise of MMA", BoxingScene.com, May 28, 2007
Sun Discusses Company Milestones and Provides Year End Summary
- UFC and Spike TV Announce Continued Partnership. UFC.com. March 22, 2006.
- UFC set to surpass boxing in betting revenue
- Mixed martial arts notebook: Well-traveled UFC president has big plans for the sport
- Brutal, bloody, merciless - and set to beguile Britain
- Pishna, Ken. UFC Announced European Expansion. MMAWeekly.com. August 14, 2006.
- ''Associated Press'', http://sports.espn.go.com/sports/news/story?id=2814235, March 27, 2007.
- ''The Hot List'', ''ESPNEWS'', air date March 27, 2007.
- The Fight Network
- Pride WORLDWIDE JAPAN OFFICE OFFICIALLY CLOSED
- UFC Buying World Extreme Cagefighting
- Harley-Davidson Sponsors UFC
- Bud Light Enters the Octagon As Exclusive Beer Sponsor of UFC
- Mixed Martial Arts Unified Rules of Conduct, Additional Mixed Martial Arts Rules, New Jersey Athletic Control Board. Retrieved April 3 2006
- Gentry, Clyde, ''No Holds Barred: Ultimate Fighting and the Martial Arts Revolution'', (Milo Books: Preston, 2005), p.208
- UFC 62: Streaming en Espanol. ''The Boston Herald''. July 30 2006. Retrieved August 4 2006.
- NSAC Regulations: Chapter 467 - Unarmed Combat. Nevada State Athletic Commission. Retrieved April 3 2006
- MMA rules explained. Nevada State Athletic Commission. Retrieved June 30 2006.
- Ivan's Blog-
- UFC Pinned Till 2011 By THQ
- UFC Series Zero Action Figure Prototype Images MMAFigs.com
- UFC Series 1 Action Figure Prototype Images MMAFigs.com
- Jakks UFC Octagon Official Scale Playset MMAFigs.com